Thursday, 30 May 2013


Welcome to my blog. Hope you will get some extra knowledge and information from this blog. :)

I am Nur Amira Binti Zainal Ariff from Dec5A. This blog is created for Digital Mobile and Communication (DNMC) subject code ITE3543 which to accomplish assignment that had been given to me other than that can gain more new knowledge and a lot of information that can be used in future time being.

The objective of my blog is to inform the public about the causes and effects of the hurricanes that can affect other people lives and also to provide the ways on how to prevent and to survive before and after the hurricane.

Sunday, 7 April 2013

Precaution Steps For Hurricane Attacks

Before a Hurricane

To prepare for a hurricane, you should take the following measures:
  • To begin preparing, you should build an emergency kit and make a family communications plan.
  • Know your surroundings.
  • Learn the elevation level of your property and whether the land is flood-prone. This will help you know how your property will be affected when storm surge or tidal flooding are forecast.
  • Identify levees and dams in your area and determine whether they pose a hazard to you.
  • Learn community hurricane evacuation routes and how to find higher ground. Determine where you would go and how you would get there if you needed to evacuate.
  • Make plans to secure your property:
  • Cover all of your home’s windows. Permanent storm shutters offer the best protection for windows. A second option is to board up windows with 5/8” marine plywood, cut to fit and ready to install. Tape does not prevent windows from breaking.
  • Install straps or additional clips to securely fasten your roof to the frame structure. This will reduce roof damage.
  • Be sure trees and shrubs around your home are well trimmed so they are more wind resistant.
  • Clear loose and clogged rain gutters and downspouts.
  • Reinforce your garage doors; if wind enters a garage it can cause dangerous and expensive structural damage.
  • Plan to bring in all outdoor furniture, decorations, garbage cans and anything else that is not tied down.
  • Determine how and where to secure your boat.
  • Install a generator for emergencies.
  • If in a high-rise building, be prepared to take shelter on or below the 10th floor.
  • Consider building a safe room.

After a Hurricane

  • Continue listening to a NOAA Weather Radio or the local news for the latest updates.
  • Stay alert for extended rainfall and subsequent flooding even after the hurricane or tropical storm has ended.
  • If you evacuated, return home only when officials say it is safe.
  • Drive only if necessary and avoid flooded roads and washed¬ out bridges. Stay off the streets. If you must go out watch for fallen objects; downed electrical wires; and weakened walls, bridges, roads, and sidewalks.
  • Keep away from loose or dangling power lines and report them immediately to the power company.
  • Walk carefully around the outside your home and check for loose power lines, gas leaks and structural damage before entering.
  • Stay out of any building if you smell gas, flood waters remain around the building or your home was damaged by fire and the authorities have not declared it safe.
  • Inspect your home for damage. Take pictures of damage, both of the building and its contents, for insurance purposes. If you have any doubts about safety, have your residence inspected by a qualified building inspector or structural engineer before entering.
  • Use battery-powered flashlights in the dark. Do NOT use candles. Note: The flashlight should be turned on outside before entering - the battery may produce a spark that could ignite leaking gas, if present.
  • Watch your pets closely and keep them under your direct control. Watch out for wild animals, especially poisonous snakes. Use a stick to poke through debris.
  • Avoid drinking or preparing food with tap water until you are sure it’s not contaminated.
  • Check refrigerated food for spoilage. If in doubt, throw it out.
  • Wear protective clothing and be cautious when cleaning up to avoid injury.
  • Use the telephone only for emergency calls.
  • NEVER use a generator inside homes, garages, crawlspaces, sheds, or similar areas, even when using fans or opening doors and windows for ventilation. Deadly levels of carbon monoxide can quickly build up in these areas and can linger for hours, even after the generator has shut off.

Effects of Hurricane

Economical Effects

In general, hurricanes cause little economic effects that too in the areas where the hurricanes hit directly. Considering this, hurricane Katrina was different from the prior incidents of hurricanes. The overall economic impact of hurricane Katrina was estimated to be about 150 billion dollars. The major factors that contributed to such an extensive economic impact were fall outs of oil supply, food export, tourism and other forms of trade and business. Oil and gasoline prices were soared high. Luckily, no catastrophic damage was incurred in the oil infrastructure.The economy of the country was slow down significantly due to hurricane Katrina.

A victim's RV had damage after the hurricane attacks the area in Chalmette.

Environmental Effects

The environmental damages and threats on public health were the longest-lasting effects of hurricane Katrina. The industrial wastes, oil spills, household sewage, toxic chemicals and other hazardous pollutants had swept to the directly hit areas as well as neighboring regions. The contaminated floodwater that overflowed the residential areas caused long-term health effects on humans, animals and other inhabitants of the area. It also resulted in pollution of groundwater reserves, which is a major water source for drinking purposes.

Water samples of floodwater contain high amounts of E. coli bacteria, medical waste, sewage, oil, toxic lead, hexavalent chromium and arsenic along with particulate matter. As a strategy to prevent severe health complications, household water pipes were repaired and replaced. 

The rescue team in the process of searching survivors after the hurricane attack

Social Effects

The facts about hurricane Katrina reveal that more than 1800 people lost their lives due to this disaster . In addition, hundreds of people were left without homes, jobs and social security. Majority of the people residing on the Gulf coast have had a different story to share about the effects of hurricane Katrina. Most of them had lost family members and relatives. There were lack of food, water and sanitary hygiene. Those who suffered through hurricane Katrina and aftermath suffered from emotional and psychological stress.

Children that had lost their family members and were looking for their parents after the hurricane attack

An old man that was lives alone standing in-front of his precious house after the  hurricane attack

Wednesday, 20 March 2013

Sources or Links

Causes of hurricane

There are two main factors that causes hurricane storms which are vaporize warm water and high speed of wind. Hurricanes occur when the moist warm air from the surface of the ocean rises and meets cooler air. In that situation, the moist warm air condenses and produce storm clouds and raindrops. It also release of suppressed heat due to condensation process, which upsurges the temperature of the cooler air.

Highway in New Orleans
As the sequence of exchanging heat remains, a wind pattern is generated that moves in a spiral fashion around a calm center, which is referred to as the hurricane eye.  Existence of strong winds at high altitude pull the rising warm air away from the center, makes the storm to twirl in the usual hurricane pattern. 

Road to Florida Avenue, America

Another factor that increases the speed of wind is high-pressure air at high altitude. This high-pressure air draws the heat away from the center of the storm. As this high-pressure air moves to the center and meets the low-pressure air, the wind speed again increases.

How do hurricanes form?

Tropical cyclones are like giant engines that use warm, moist air as fuel. That is why they form only over warm ocean waters near the equator. The warm, moist air over the ocean upsurges upward from near the surface. Because this air travels up and away from the surface, there is fewer air left near the surface. Another way to say the similar thing is that the warm air rises, causing an area of lower air pressure below.

A cumulonimbus cloud. A tropical cyclone has many of these, they form huge, circular bands. 

Air from surrounding atmosphere with greater air pressure pushes in to the low pressure zone. Then that "new" air becomes warm, humid and rises, too. As the warm air remains to rise, the surrounding air swirls in to take its place. As the warmed, moist air rises and cools off, the water in the air produce clouds. The entire system of clouds, wind spins and grows, fed by the ocean's heat and water vaporizing from the surface.

Storms that form north of the equator turn counter clockwise. Storms south of the equator spin clockwise. This variance is because of Earth's turning on its axis.

As the storm system rotates faster and faster, an eye forms in the center. It is very calm and clear in the eye, with very low air density. Higher pressure air from above flows down into the eye.

This is the diagram of the process on how hurricane occur

Video :!

Thursday, 7 March 2013

What Is Hurricane?

Hurricane is a violent storm which is characterized by extreme ferocity and hasty changes of the wind, and generally escorted by rain, thunder, and lightning especially prevalent in the East and West Indies. and also used figuratively.

Hurricane Katrina view from somewhere in America

In a scientific definition, hurricane means a severe, rotating tropical storm with heavy rains and cyclonic winds exceeding 74 mi (119 km) per hour, especially such a storm occurring in the Northern Hemisphere. Hurricanes is original came from the tropical parts of the Atlantic Ocean or the Caribbean Sea and move generally northward. It will lose its force when it move over land or colder ocean waters. Hurricanes can bring a lot of damage and effect towards an area which is affected. This natural disaster can make a country become unstable in many aspects such as political, economy, social relationships and financial.

The hurricane's view from satellite

Tropical cyclones categories :

Wind Speed (mph)
Damage at Landfall
Storm Surge (feet)
Over 155